Optical testing of plastics includes the characterization of materials and the analysis of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, the knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface irregularity, birefringence, and internal contamination must also be considered. These characteristics are a function of the material and the fabrication method. Gloss and color also are affected by the base material and measured as optical properties.