This article provides an overview of fractography and explains how it is used in failure analysis. It reviews the basic types of fracture processes, namely, ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep, principally in terms of fracture appearances, such as microstructure. The article also describes the general features of fatigue fractures in terms of crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation.
This article briefly reviews the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause a weakening of the grain boundaries and, in turn, influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. It discusses the mechanisms of IG fractures, including the dimpled IG fracture, the IG brittle fracture, and the IG fatigue fracture. The article describes some typical embrittlement mechanisms that cause the IG fracture of steels.