Chapter 4: Tensile Testing Equipment and Strain Sensors
This chapter reviews the current technology and examines force application systems, force measurement, strain measurement, important instrument considerations, gripping of test specimens, test diagnostics, and the use of computers for gathering and reducing data. The influence of the machine stiffness on the test results is also described, along with a general assessment of test accuracy, precision, and repeatability of modern equipment. The chapter discusses various types of testing machines and their operations. Emphasis is placed on strain-sensing equipment. The chapter briefly describes load condition factors, such as strain rate, machine rigidity, and various testing modes by load control, speed control, strain control, and strain-rate control. It provides a description of environmental chambers for testing and discusses the processes involved in the force verification of universal testing machines. Specimen geometries and standard tensile tests are also described.