Chapter 5: Fatigue of Metals
This chapter discusses the factors that play a role in fatigue failures and how they affect the service life of metals and structures. It describes the stresses associated with high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue and how they differ from the loading profiles typically used to generate fatigue data. It compares the Gerber, Goodman, and Soderberg methods for predicting the effect of mean stress from bending data, describes the statistical nature of fatigue measurements, and explains how plastic strain causes cyclic hardening and softening. It discusses the work of Wohler, Basquin, and others and how it led to the development of a strain-based approach to fatigue and the use of fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. It reviews the three stages of fatigue, beginning with crack initiation followed by crack growth and final fracture. It explains how fracture mechanics can be applied to crack propagation and how stress concentrations affect fatigue life. It also discusses fatigue life improvement methods and design approaches.