Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels
Chapter 10: Tempering of Martensite
This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide precipitation, the decomposition of retained austenite, and recovery and recrystallization. It also includes images that reveal the characteristic structures produced by tempering medium-carbon hypoeutectoid and hypereutectoid steels as well as the effects of plastic deformation, austenitic grain size, and temper brittleness.
Tempering of Martensite, Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels, By Leonard E. Samuels, ASM International, 1999, p 283–307, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
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New Handbook: Volume 11B
Now available in the Digital Library! Volume 11B serves as a reference and guide to help engineers determine the causes of failure in plastic components and make corrective adjustments through design and manufacturing modifications.