Chapter 4: Low-Carbon Irons and Steels
This chapter discusses the composition and structure of low-carbon irons and steels, particularly those used in the production of hot-rolled strip. It describes the manufacturing process from the production of ingots to coiling, and it explains how finishing and coiling temperatures affect ferritic grain size and the distribution of cementite particles. It also discusses subsequent processing, including cold rolling and annealing, and the parameters with the greatest impact on grain size and microstructure. In addition, it describes the production of enameling irons, the benefits of high-temperature heat treatments, and the effects of quench and strain aging.