Cracks in Cylinder Blocks and in Cast Iron Cylinder Head
During the operation of tractors with cantilevered body, the lateral wall of the hypoeutectic cast iron cylinder blocks cracked repeatedly. Three of the blocks were examined. The grain structure of the thick-walled part consisted of uniformly distributed graphite of medium flake size in a basic mass of pearlite with little ferrite. But the thin-walled part showed a structure of dendrites of precipitated primary solid solution grains with pearlitic-ferritic structure and a residual liquid phase with granular graphite in the ferritic matrix. The structure was formed by undercooling of the residual melt. In this case, it was promoted by fast cooling of the thin wall and had comparatively low strength. The fracture formation in the cylinder blocks was ascribed primarily to casting stresses. They could be alleviated by better filleting of the transition cross sections. The fracture was promoted by the formation of undercooled microstructure of low strength in the thin-walled part. Similar damage appeared in a cylinder head, in which case, the cracks were promoted by a supercooled structure.
Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Cracks in Cylinder Blocks and in Cast Iron Cylinder Head, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Construction, Mining, and Agricultural Equipment, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
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