Use of Ultrasonic Inspection to Detect Creep Rupture in Stainless Steel Headers of an Ammonia-Plant Reformer Furnace
One of the coils in the radiant section of a primary reformer furnace used in an ammonia plant was found leaking. The bottom of one of seven outlet headers (made of ASME SA-452, grade TP316H, stainless steel) was revealed during examination to be ruptured. It was revealed by metallurgical examination that it had failed as a result of intergranular fissuring and oxidation (creep rupture). The ruptured area revealed that the header had failed by conventional long-time creep rupture as a result of exposure to operating temperatures probably between 900 and 955 deg C. Three samples from different sections (ruptured...
Use of Ultrasonic Inspection to Detect Creep Rupture in Stainless Steel Headers of an Ammonia-Plant Reformer Furnace, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
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