Failure of Copper Alloy 443 Heat-Exchanger Tubes
Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube surfaces during the cooling process. Air flow over the tubes reversed direction every 585 mm as a result of baffling placed in the heat exchangers. An uneven ridgelike thinning and perforation of the tube wall on the leeward side of the tube was revealed by visual examination....
Failure of Copper Alloy 443 Heat-Exchanger Tubes, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Power Generating Equipment, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
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