This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article reviews a nucleating system as a homogeneous phase using the classical nucleation theory, along with heterophase fluctuations that led to the formation of precipitates. It discusses the gas cluster dynamics using the kinetic approach to describe nucleation. The article presents key parameters, such as cluster condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions and extensions of the classical nucleation theory are discussed. The article also provides the limitations of classical nucleation theories in cluster dynamics.
Emmanuel Clouet, Modeling of Nucleation Processes, Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing, Vol 22A, ASM Handbook, Edited By D.U. Furrer, S.L. Semiatin, ASM International, 2009, p 203–219, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
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