Metals Handbook Desk Edition (2nd Edition)
Refractory Metals and Alloys
The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. They are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low temperatures. Protective coating systems have been developed, mostly for niobium alloys, to permit their use in high-temperature oxidizing aerospace applications. This article discusses the properties, processing, applications, and classes of refractory metals and its alloys, namely molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum and rhenium. It also provides an outline of the coating processes used to improve their oxidation resistance.
Refractory Metals and Alloys, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 629–633, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
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