Case depth is the normal distance from the surface of the steel to the start of the core. Measurement of case depth is highly sensitive to the type of case hardening, original steel composition, quenching condition, and even to the testing method. This article describes the various methods of measuring case depth in steels, including chemical methods such as the combustion analysis and spectrographic analysis, microhardness test method, macroscopic and microscopic visual methods, and nondestructive methods. It contains a table that provides approximate equivalent hardness numbers for steel.
William J. Bernard, III, Methods of Measuring Case Depth in Steels, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 4A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Jon L. Dossett, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2013, p 405–416, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005795
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