This chapter explains the basic terminology and principles of metallurgy as they apply to extrusion. It begins with an overview of crystal structure in metals and alloys, including crystal defects and orientation. This is followed by sections discussing the development of the continuous cast microstructure of aluminum and copper alloys. The discussion provides information on billet and grain segregation and defects in continuous casting. The chapter then discusses the processes involved in the deformation of pure metals and alloys at room temperature. Next, it describes the characteristics of pure metals and alloys at higher temperatures. The processes involved in extrusion are then covered. The chapter provides details on how the toughness and fracture characteristics of metals and alloys affect the extrusion process. The weld seams in hollow profiles, the production of composite profiles, and the processing of composite materials, as well as the extrusion of metal powders, are discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion on the factors that define the extrudability of metallic materials and how these attributes are characterized.
Martin Bauser, Metallurgical Principles, Extrusion, 2nd ed., By A.F. Castle;Edited By M. Bauser, G. Sauer, K. Siegert, ASM International, 2006, p 141–194, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
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