Chapter 15: Creep
Creep occurs in any metal or alloy at a temperature where atoms become sufficiently mobile to allow the time-dependent rearrangement of structure. This chapter begins with a section on creep curves, covering the three distinct stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary. It then provides information on the stress-rupture test used to measure the time it takes for a metal to fail at a given stress at elevated temperature. The major classes of creep mechanism, namely Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, are then covered. The chapter also provides information on three primary modes of elevated fracture, namely, rupture, transgranular fracture, and intergranular fracture. The next section focuses on some of the metallurgical instabilities caused by overaging, intermetallic phase precipitation, and carbide reactions. Subsequent sections address creep life prediction and creep-fatigue interaction and the approaches to design against creep.