Brittle Fracture of a Support Arm for a Front-End Loader
A support arm on a front-end loader failed in a brittle manner while lifting a load. The arm had a cross section of 50 x 200 mm (2 x 8 in.). Material used for the arm was hot-rolled ASTM A572, grade 42 (type 1), steel, which exhibited poor impact properties in the as-rolled condition and had a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature exceeding 93 deg C (200 deg F). This transition temperature was much too high for the application. It was recommended that a modified ASTM A572, grade 42 (0.15% C max), type 1 or 2, steel be used (type 1, which contains niobium, may be needed to meet strength requirements). The steel should be specified to be killed, fine-grained, and normalized, with Charpy V-notch impact-energy values of 20 J (15 ft·lbf) at -46 deg C (-50 deg F) in the longitudinal direction and 20 J (15 ft·lbf) at -29 deg C (-20 deg F) in the transverse direction.