Nondestructive metallographic examination of materials frequently must be performed on-site when the component in question cannot be moved or destructively examined. Often, it is imperative that specific microstructural information (i.e., material type, heat treatment condition, homogeneity, etc.) be obtained either before initial use of a component, or before the use of a component can be safely resumed. In this paper, the use of standard metallurgical laboratory equipment, and the procedures required to conduct nondestructive on-site metallographic analyses of engineering materials, is presented. As an example, the materials and metallographic techniques employed in an actual on-site investigation of a gas tungsten-arc weldment joining two large diameter Ti-6Al-4V alloy cylinders are discussed in depth to illustrate what can be accomplished.