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In a housing made of cast steel GS 20MoV12 3, weighing 42 tons, precipitates were found on the austenitic grain boundaries during metallographic inspection. According to their shape and type they were recognized as carbides that precipitated during tempering. In addition, a much coarser network of rod-shaped and plate-shaped precipitates was found, that probably corresponded to the primary grain boundaries, or to the grain boundaries or twin planes of the austenite formed during solidification of the melt. These particles could have been aluminum nitride judging by their shape and order of precipitation. Tests showed that a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning was impractical because the annealing temperature was too high. To avoid this defect in the future the sole recommendation is to accelerate the cooling rate through the critical region between 1200 to 900 deg C to such an extent as is practicable with respect to machinability.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, 2019. "Cast Steel Housing with Grain Boundary Precipitates", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects

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