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Abstract

An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated, furnished with 42 kg of 75% ferrosilicon and 12 kg aluminum additions, alloyed with 160 kg of 80% ferromanganese, and finally deoxidized in the ladle with 42 kg calcium silicon. For metallographic examination a plate approximately 100 mm thick was cut parallel to one of the eight planes. Platelet-like particles could be discerned on the conchoidal fracture planes with the SEM. The precipitates proved to be thin and partially transparent platelets of a hexagonal crystal lattice whose parameters resemble those of AIN. The precipitates were at least in part still undissolved in spite of the long holding period at high initial forging temperature. Another block melted under the same conditions and immediately after the defective one, was forged into a gear ring without any trouble. This ring was free of grain boundary precipitates, but it contained only 0.012 % AI and 0.0102 % N.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, 2019. "Cast Ingot Cracked During Forging", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects

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