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Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur at the oxidized copper surface. Electroless nickel plating separation from OFHC copper leads was caused by improper handling rather than a plating anomaly per se. Tin plating separation from copper underplating on a hybrid package lid occurred because of a four-week delay between the copper plating and tin plating steps. It was recommended that tin plating should follow the copper underplating within 24 h and a cleaning step of bright dipping after copper plating be performed.

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