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Hydraulic cylinders on three identical presses failed in a similar manner after approximately ten years' service life. The cylinder was a steel casting having a carbon content of the order of 0.3 to 0.4%. During machining of the internal surfaces, a sharp corner had been left at the junction of the head with the shell. From this stress raiser a fatigue crack had developed around the entire circumference of the cylinder to give a smooth crack of annular form. The use of a flat end to the cylinder, therefore, resulted in excessive stresses being introduced at the junction of the end with the cylinder.

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Fatigue Failure of Hydraulic Press Cylinders, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019,

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