Cracked Pipe Elbow of a Hydraulic Installation
An elbow of 70 mm OD and 10 mm wall thickness made from St 35.29, and exposed to 315 atmospheres internal pressure in an oil hydraulic shear installation, cracked lengthwise after a short operating period. Because the stress was not sufficient to explain the fracture of this elbow under this pressure, an investigation was conducted to establish whether material or processing errors had occurred. Microscopic examination showed that a ferritic-pearlitic structure in select locations was very fine-grained. Other signs of fast cooling as compared to normally formed structure of the core zone were noted. It was also possible that the pipe was resting on a cold plate during bending or that it came in touch with a cold tool. This apparently caused the strains at the transition to the cross-sectional part that had been cooled more slowly. The location of the crack at just this point gave rise to the conclusion that it was formed either by the sole or contributive effect of these stresses.
Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Cracked Pipe Elbow of a Hydraulic Installation, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001227
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