Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


Carbon steel axle forgings were rejected due to internal cracks observed during final machining. To determine the cause of the cracks, the preforms of the forging were analyzed in detail at each stage of the forging. The analysis revealed a large central burst in the intermediate stage of the forging preform, which subsequently increased in the final stage. A high upset strain during forging, especially in the final stage, accentuated the center burst by high lateral flow of the metal. It was concluded that the center burst of the axle forging resulted from a high concentration of nonmetallic inclusions in the central portion of the raw bar stock rather than the usual problem of improper forging temperature. Strict control over the inclusion content in the raw material by changing the vendor eliminated the problem.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register

B. Vamsi Krishna, R.K. Sidhu, Analysis of Center Burst During Hot Forging, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019,

Download citation file:

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal