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A seamless hot-drawn boiler tube NW 300 of 318 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of steel 15Mo3 was bent with sand filling after preheating allegedly to 1000 deg C. In the process it had cracked repeatedly in the drawn fiber. The composition corresponded to specifications, but exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under the influence of tensile stresses that arose during bending. This phenomenon is known as “solder brittleness.”

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Boiler Tube Cracked During Bending, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019,

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