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Presence of transverse marks which were remnant of grinding was indicated in a failed valve spring made from ground rod. The shot-peening pattern was light at this location. A transverse crack was found to grow from one such mark under the influence of local stress fields until it was reoriented to the plane normal to the major tensile axis by sufficient loading. The shot-peening procedure was altered to create adequate surface compression at all stressed points on the springs.

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2019. "Failure of Valve Spring Because of Grinding and Shot Peening Operations", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects

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