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Pipes made of low-carbon Thomas steel had been welded longitudinally employing the carbon-arc process with bare electrode wire made for argon-shielded arc welding. Difficulties were encountered during the cutting of threads because of the presence of hard spots. Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, 2019. "Welded Pipes with Hard Spots", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects

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