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Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel CK 45 according to DIN 17200, and crankshafts forged from these ingots showed internal separations during ultrasonic testing. To determine the cause of defect, an ingot slice and a crank arm were examined metallographically. Investigation showed this was a case where flaky forgings were made from cast ingots with primary grain boundary cracks. This parallelity supports the often expressed opinion that both occurrences have the same origin, i.e. that hydrogen precipitation was the driving force in the formation of primary grain boundary cracks in cast ingots.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Primary Grain Boundary Cracks in Cast Ingots and Flaky Crankshafts, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019,

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