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A batch of bimetal foil/epoxy laminates was rejected because of poor peel strength. The laminates were manufactured by sintering a nickel/phosphorus powder layer to a copper foil, cleaning, then chromate conversion coating the nickel-phosphorus surface, and laminating the nickel-phosphorus side of the clad bimetal onto an epoxy film, so that the end product contained nickel-phosphorus sandwiched between copper and epoxy, with a chromate conversion layer on the epoxy side of the nickel-phosphorus. Peel testing showed abnormally low adhesion strength for the bad batch of peel test samples. Comparison with normal-strength samples using XPS indicated an 8.8% Na concentration on...

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