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A forging of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, which formed a support for the cylinder of a cargo door, cracked at an attachment hole. Fluorescent penetrant inspection showed the crack ran above and below the hole out onto the machined flat surface of the flange. A 6500x electron fractograph proved the crack to be a forging defect called a cold shut. Because defects of this type are usually detected when the raw forging is inspected, this occurrence was considered to be an isolated instance.

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James A. Scott, Use of Electron Fractography to Diagnose Cracking in a 7075-T6 Aluminum Forging, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Processing Errors and Defects, ASM International, 2019,

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