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A crankshaft was overloaded on a test stand and suffered an incipient crack in the crank pin. The crack run generally parallel to the longitudinal axis and branched off at the entrance into the two fillets at the transition to the crank arm. It consisted of many small cracks, all of which propagated at an angle of approximately 45 deg to the longitudinal axis, and therefore were caused by torsion stresses. Neither macroscopic nor microscopic examination determined any material or processing faults. Experience has shown that torsion vibration fractures of this kind usually appear in comparatively short journal pins at high stresses. This crankshaft fracture was an example of the damage that is caused or promoted neither by material nor heat treatment mistakes nor by defects of design or machining, but solely by overstressing.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, 2019. "Crankshaft with Torsion Fatigue Fractures in Inductively Surface-Hardened Crank Pin", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Improper Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Conditions

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