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The specified elongation of 10% could not be achieved in several hollow pinion gear shafts made of cast Cr-Mo steel GS 35 Cr-Mo 5 3 that were heat treated to a strength of 90 kp/sq mm. The steel was melted in a basic 3 ton arc furnace and deoxidized in the furnace and in the pan with a total of 7 kg aluminum. Fracture of a tensile specimen occurred with low elongation and, apparently, also with low reduction of area. In some places it was coarse grained conchoidal. It was found that the exceptionally low elongation of the cast specimens was due to excessive deoxidation by aluminum.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Cast Steel Pinion Gear Shafts with Insufficient Elongation, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Mechanical and Machine Components, ASM International, 2019,

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