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A fractograph of the failed spring was found to indicate light streaks are parallel to the wire axis. A darker depressed area was visible between the streaks and below the center of the fractograph in which distinct outlines that represent sharp corners in the depressions were revealed by careful examination. A hard material (mill scale) was assumed to have been impressed during drawing of the wire and was broken out during peening, leaving the depressions with sharp-bottomed corners. Spring was concluded to have failed due to a surface defect.

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2019. "Spring Failure Due to a Surface Defect", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Mechanical and Machine Components

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