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A type 431 stainless steel mushroom-head closure fractured in service at a hydrogen pressure of 3000 atm. Fracture occurred at room temperature after miscellaneous chemical service that included exposures to hydrogen at temperatures from ambient to 350 deg C (662 deg F). Investigation (visual inspection and 2400x/6600x TEM analysis) supported the conclusion that failure was caused by hydrogen embrittlement, not SCC as might have been suspected. No recommendations were made.

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2019. "Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Type 431 Stainless Steel Mushroom-Head Closure", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Mechanical and Machine Components

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