Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Type 431 Stainless Steel Mushroom-Head Closure
A type 431 stainless steel mushroom-head closure fractured in service at a hydrogen pressure of 3000 atm. Fracture occurred at room temperature after miscellaneous chemical service that included exposures to hydrogen at temperatures from ambient to 350 deg C (662 deg F). Investigation (visual inspection and 2400x/6600x TEM analysis) supported the conclusion that failure was caused by hydrogen embrittlement, not SCC as might have been suspected. No recommendations were made.
Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Type 431 Stainless Steel Mushroom-Head Closure, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Mechanical and Machine Components, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0091475
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