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The failure of a reformer tube furnace manifold has been examined using metallography. It has been shown that the cause of failure was thermal fatigue; the damage was characterized by the presence of voids produced by creep mechanisms operating during the high temperature cycle under high local stress. The study indicates that standard metallographic procedures can be used to identify failure modes in high temperature petrochemical plants.

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Tito Luiz da Silveira, Francisco Solano Moreira, Miriam Conçeicão Garcia Chavez, Iain Le May, Metallographic Studies of a Reformer Tube Failure Due to Thermal Fatigue, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Chemical Processing Equipment, ASM International, 2019,

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