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Failure occurred by fatigue cracking of links from chains which were used to replace the ropes on grabs of the multirope type. In the first example, the links were made from high tensile steel rod. The fracture in the side of the link was duplex in appearance one half of the surface being discolored, indicative of a preexisting crack of the fatigue type, whilst the remaining portion was brightly crystalline, resulting from brittle fracture at the time of the mishap. In the second example, the fracture took place at a similar location adjacent to one of the butt welds situated at the mid-length of the sides. Brinell hardness values confirmed that the link was made from the higher tensile grade of material. The cracks were due to fatigue, there being no indications that the weld was initially defective.

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