Fatigue Fracture of a 1030 Steel Crane Shaft
A drum pinion shaft (1030 steel) which was part of the hoisting gear of a crane (capacity 18,140-kg) operating in a blooming mill failed while lifting a 9070 kg load. Chatter marks, rough-machining marks, and sharp corner radii were revealed in the keyway which extended into a shoulder at a change in diam. A circular recess below the keyway surface was revealed at each end of the keyway. A sharp corner at the end of the keyway was revealed by examination to be the origin of fracture. Beach marks were found radiating from the origin over a large portion of the fracture surface which confirmed failure of the shaft by fatigue fracture. As a corrective measure the shaft was replaced with one made of 4140 steel, quenched and tempered to a hardness of 286 to 319 HRB. The keyway was moved away from the change in section and was machined with a 1.6-mm radius in the bottom corners and a larger-radius fillet was machined at the change in section.