A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing of the roll bodies which necessitated their removal from service. The initial analysis found large quantities of nitrogen had been absorbed by the roll shell. Further research indicated nitrogen pickup accounted for 3% volumetric growth for every 1% by weight nitrogen absorption. This expansion was sufficient to account for the dimensional change observed in the failed rolls. This paper details the failure analysis and resulting research it inspired. It also provides recommendations for cast material choice in highly nitriding atmospheres.