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Forged austenitic steel rings used on rotor shafts in two 100,000 kW generators burst from overstressing in a region of ventilation holes. A variety of causes contributed to the brittle fractures in the ductile austenitic alloy, including stress concentration by holes, work hardened metal in the bores, and a variable pattern of residual stress.

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Failures of Forged End Bells on Large Electric Generators, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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