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Critical heat exchanger components are usually manufactured from durable steels, such as stainless steel, which exhibit good strength and corrosion resistance. Failure of a heat exchanger occurred due to specification of a plain carbon steel that did not survive service in the SO2 vapor environment. However, failure analysis showed that cavitation erosion was the responsible failure mechanism, not corrosion as might be expected.

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W. Reitz, 2019. "SO2 Heat Exchanger Failure", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms

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