Butterfly-shaped microstructural features in tempered martensite in an otherwise clean steel suggested that overloading led to premature spalling of a coal-crushing plant taper bearing. Extensive rolling contact fatigue occurred because of the overload condition. The crusher was designed to handle soft lignite coals but had been used to crush hard deep-mined anthracite coals.
H.W. Walton, Failure of Coal Crushing Plant Taper Bearing, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001741
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