Failure of a Large Gas Cylinder Due to Internal Laminar Defects
A 2 ft. diam 20 ft. long cylinder with a wall thickness of 1 in. used for the transportation of a compressed gas failed by cracking. The cylinder was forged in a low ally steel. The working pressure was 3000 psi and it had been in service for about seven years. A longitudinal crack, about 2 in. long, developed at the approximate mid-length of the vessel, and allowed slow de-pressurization. Subsequent examination by radiography and ultrasonic means indicated the crack was associated with an irregularly shaped, laminar type of defect located within the wall of the vessel. It was concluded that failure of this vessel resulted from the development of a radial crack orientated in the axial direction. This appeared to have originated on the bore surface in a region where the laminar defect closely approached this surface. The defect was introduced during the manufacture of the vessel, probably originating as a secondary pipe in the ingot which was subsequently displaced and forced into the wall of the vessel during the piercing operation.