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A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material No. 1.4573). After five months one of the coils, which consisted of tubes having a wall thickness of 3.4 mm, developed a leak. Tightly closed cracks were seen on the outer surface of the tube. Further tests with color penetration process revealed multiple branched cracks. Longitudinal section showed that the cracks had started from the outside surface of the tube. Electrolytic etching further showed that they had propagated mainly across the grains. It was concluded that this was a typical case of transcrystalline stress corrosion.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Leaky Heating Coils of an Austenitic Chromium-Nickel-Molybdenum Steel, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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