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Copper piping in a closed-loop water heater system was found to be corroded with MIC and erosion of the weak oxide layer. Investigation (visual inspection, bacterial corrosion cultures, and 20x/400x micrographs) supported the conclusion that the corrosion was caused by microbiological attack, specifically sulfur-reducing bacteria. No recommendations were made.

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Uniform Corrosion of Copper Piping Caused by Microbiological Attack, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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