Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running out of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses; the latter causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection.
Egon Kauczor, Stress Corrosion Cracking Failures in Components Made of Austenitic Chromium Nickel Steels, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
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