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A high-chromium white cast iron shell liner installed in an ore crusher sustained impact damage in the course of operation. Visual-optical examination revealed horizontal cracks on the surface of the liner along with particles that had fractured off. Metallographic examination indicated a heavily deformed surface layer with chip formation at the wear surface. The chemical composition of the liner was found to be Fe-2.74C-0.75Mn-0.55Si-0.51Ni-19.4Cr-1.15M. This alloy is highly resistant to abrasive wear, yet at the same time, prone to chipping because little plastic displacement will occur at the surface. The liner failed as a result of severe abrasion caused by the impact of taconite rock. This was a material-selection problem in that the wrong alloy was used for a condition not anticipated in the original choice.

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2019. "Rapid Wear of Shell Liner Due to Severe Abrasion", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms

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