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Thermal and transformation stresses, resulting from welding, adding up with operational stresses can result in failure. Examples involving the crankshaft of a shaft-drive to produce artificial waves in a swimming pool, the joint bar of a dredger cast out of a running non-alloyed steel with 39 kg/sq mm tensile strength, which had been strengthened by welding plate strips on both sides had fractured in service; an axle tube out of 40 Mn 4 after DIN 17 200 from a paper fabrication machine, which had three short longitudinal slits distributed uniformly over its surface; welding to repair worn out bearing or fits, and a broken rear axle tube of a bus are described.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, Fatigue Fracture and Weld, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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