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The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded aluminum. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 aluminum had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations.

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D.G. Ryding, D. Allen, R. Lee, Pitting of 3003 Aluminum, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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