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Copper shortening has been found to occur in the rotor windings of turbo alternators and takes the form of a progressive reduction in the length of the coils leading to distortion of the end windings. The trouble results from the high loading which develops between successive layers of the strip conductor due to centrifugal force. This leads to a high frictional binding force between turns and prevents axial expansion under normal heating in service. Rotor trouble which proved to be due to copper shortening was found in a set rated at 27.5 MW. It was manufactured in 1934 at which time silver-bearing copper was not available. The use of hard-drawn silver-bearing copper for a rewind, in conjunction with special attention to blocking up the end windings, is confidently expected to effect a complete cure.

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Deformation of the Rotor Winding of a Turbo Alternator: An Extreme Example of “Copper Shortening”, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Failure Modes and Mechanisms, ASM International, 2019,

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