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Aircraft missile launcher attachment bolts fabricated from cadmium-coated Hy-tuf steel were found broken. Subsequent analysis of the broken bolts indicated three causes of failure. First, the bolts had been carburized, which was not in conformance with the heat treating requirements. Second, macroetching showed that the bolts has been machined from stock rather than forged, and the threads cut rather than rolled. It was also determined that hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking also played a part in the failure of the high-strength bolts.

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M. Pepi, Failure of Steel Missile Launcher Attachment Bolts, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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