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Suspension lugs fabricated from AISI 4340 steel used to facilitate loading of bombs onto the underside of military aircraft could not sustain required loads during routine proof load testing. Three failed lugs underwent visual examination, chemical analysis, metallography, hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing.

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M. Pepi, Failure of a Steel Bomb Suspension Lug, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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