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A bomb retaining ring fabricated from type 302 stainless steel unwrapped during a practice flight, causing the bomb fins to deploy. The retaining ring was able to unwrap itself because it was thinner and softer than required. Hardness testing, metallography, and tensile testing confirmed that the component was in the annealed condition and not in the required work-hardened 1/4-hard condition.

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M. Pepi, Failure of a Stainless Steel Bomb Fin Retaining Band, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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